O level Notes : Food Technology Design - Advanced Beverages: Indigenous and non-indigenous beverages

Advanced beverages include indigenous and non-indigenous. Generally, most advanced beverages are quite nutritious and nourish the body. Some of the advanced beverages use dairy products as a base in their preparation owing to the high nutritional content.

Other advanced beverages use a water base or fruit juice base, hence giving a refreshing effect. A variety of fruits and vegetables are mixed during preparation of these beverages.

Indigenous beverages

Indigenous beverages are those that are made mainly using natural locally available wild fruits such as (hacha) sand apple, (marula or mapfura or umkhumbi,) buffalo thorn/masau, monkey orange (matamba). Their names are derived from the fruit used in the drink for example baobab mawuyu drink. There are some indigenous beverages that are not made using the wild fruits such as Mahewu or Amahewu and usvusvu which are cereal based beverages.

Mahewu /Amahewu

Mahewu orAmahewu in a clay pot

Mahewu is a traditional African fermented non-alcoholic cereal based drink. It is made by fermenting cereal porridge such as maize, sorghum or wheat, mixed with millet, chimera /malt. The drink is then left for a day or two to ferment. Mahewu can be served as a thirst quencher, meal replacement and weaning food. The drink is ideal for packed meals.

A variety of Mahewu drinks are now available in stores from ready to drink and instant Mahewu. Generally, Mahewu is low in HBV protein but rich in carbohydrates making it an ideal source of energy. Commercially made Mahewu is fortified with nutrients such as iron, calcium, folate and is therefore more nutritious than traditional homemade Mahewu. Other nutritional benefits are that the drink contains probiotic, bacteria that improve digestive health. Traditionally Mahewu is believed to increase milk supply in breast feeding mothers.

A variety of flavours can be achieved by blending in fruits such as banana, and other food essences to fermented Mahewu. This drink can be served hot or cold in glasses, cups or mason jars.

Baobab / Mawuyu drink

Baobab or Mawuyu or Umkhomo fruit

In Zimbabwe the baobab fruit has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. This fruit can be eaten like candy. It is also used in preparation of drinks as well as in cakes and puddings. It is a tangy fruit with a citrusy flavour. Baobab is available in whole and in powder form. Due to its little water content the baobab fruit is kept for long. Freshly shelled baobab should be kept in air tight containers.

Baobab fruit contain high levels of vitamin C and mineral elements such as calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc. The baobab drink can be prepared using milk for a more nutritious treat. Water can also be used to create a refreshing beverage.

How to make the baobab fruit drink?

  • Remove all the casing and empty the contents into a large heat proof bowl.
  • Heat milk or water to almost boiling point.
  • Pour the heated milk or water over the baobab fruit. Stir with wooden spoon breaking up the large lumps of the powder.
  • Allow mixture to soak while cooling down.
  • Stir well with a hand whisker, to separate the baobab fruit from the seeds.
  • Remove the seeds using a spoon and strain the drink using a mesh strainer or strain through a clean dish towel or cheese cloth.
  • Use a wooden spoon to stir the juice as it goes through the strainer removing the long string of pulp and clumps of seeds. If using a dishtowel or cheesecloth, twist and squeeze as much juice as possible.
  • Sweeten the juice using brown sugar for a caramel taste. White sugar and honey may also be used to sweeten.
  • Pour in mason jars or any appropriate bottle and refrigerate. Serve chilled at tea time or at breakfast with cereal.


  • If the drink is prepared using water it can be left to ferment overnight, for a sour drink with a tangy taste.
  • Powder can be used for an instant drink by simply mixing the powder with cold milk.
  • The fermented drink can be used to make baobab mealie meal porridge.

Sand apple or Hacha or Chakata


It is an oval shaped fruit with a skin colour that ranges from yellow to red-brown. The pulp around the stone may be eaten raw and may also be used making juice and jam. The fruit can be preserved by drying. The seed kennel is edible and rich in oil. The oil can be extracted and used for cooking. Hacha is a very rich source of carbohydrates, sugar, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. It also provides the following nutrients in small amounts; protein, fat, sodium and zinc.

Method for preparing the Hacha drink

  1. Wash and dry the ripe fruit.
  2. Lightly pound the fruit with little water, to loosen the fruit pulp and skin. Be careful not to crush the seed.
  3. Put the pound mixture in a bowl and, add some water just enough to make juice of desired consistency.
  4. Cover and leave to soak for an hour or two hours.
  5. Using a spoon remove the seeds and strain the drink using a mesh strainer or a strain through a clean dish towel or cheesecloth.
  6. As you strain, use a wooden spoon to stir the juice as it goes through the strainer removing the skin and clumps of seeds. If using a dishtowel or cheesecloth, twist and squeeze as much juice as possible.
  7. Pour in mason jars or any appropriate bottle and refrigerate. Serve chilled and unsweetened.


  • Soak the pound mixture in water overnight for a sour taste then strain the drink.
  • The strained dRink can be used to make mealie meal porridge.

Buffalo thorn / Masawu/ Umphafa


Dried Masawu                              Fresh Masawu

Masawu is a wild sweet and sour fruit consumed by many in Zimbabwe. They contribute significantly to people's diets when they are in season. Masawu can be consumed fresh or dried. It is a rich source of vitamin C, A and B complex, carbohydrate, high fibre. They also provide the body with mineral elements such as sugar, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, copper, iron, zinc. Masawu can be used to make both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Tea is one of the beverages that are prepared using Masawu.

Method for making Masawu tea

  1. Wash the dried fruit under running water.
  2. Boil water and add the washed fruit. Bring to the boil then simmer for 3 hours in a closed pot or soak the fruit overnight and simmer for 1 hour
  3. Add ginger pieces and cinnamon sticks to the simmering fruit and simmer for further 30 minutes.
  4. Cool and strain the drink using muslin cloth.
  5. Chill and serve Masawu tea in a glass or pack in a vacuum flask for a packed meal.

Non indigenous advanced beverage

Non indigenous drinks include smoothies, punches, yogurt based drinks, iced tea, cocktails, egg nog and milk shakes.


A smoothie is a rich thick creamy and cold beverage made from pureed raw fruit, dairy products for example milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese or ice cream and sometimes vegetables. Smoothies are made by placing all the ingredients in a blender and processing them together.

A smoothie nourishes the body with essential nutrients. Water, yoghurt and soya or cow's milk can be used as bases for smoothie. Healthier options include, water, low fat yoghurt or low fat milk which will add flavour and nutrients without huge numbers of calories. The strong base of dairy products in making smoothies makes them rich in calcium and HBV protein.

There are different types of fruits used to make smoothies such as citrus, berries, melons for example tropical, drupe, pomes. The use of whole fruit in smoothie makes this beverage rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, potassium, folate, antioxidants and carotene. The water and other liquid ingredients will provide the body with fluid.

Milk shake

It is a cold sweet drink, usually made from milk, a flavouring syrup and often ice cream. The ingredients are thoroughly shaken or blended until frothy.  Honey, sugar or ice cream can be used to add sweetness. Milk shakes can be made from home using electric blender or automatic drink mixer.

Yoghurt can be added to a milk shake to give the drink a sweet and sour taste. A variety of flavourings can be used to bring uniqueness to the milk shake. For example:

  • Essences (vanilla or coffee),
  • Fruit juice,
  • Pureed fruit such as mango, banana, strawberry,
  • Syrups (chocolate, lime, butterscotch, caramel and fruit syrup).

Acidic fruits such as oranges, lemons are not suitable as they will curdle the milk. Milk shakes are nourishing and refreshing. They provide a generous amount of protein and  calcium.  The  drink  is  also  rich  in  carbohydrates,  fats  vitamin A and  D. Milk shakes can be part of a healthy meal especially if the sugar is used in moderation. It can also be a treat on a special occasion.

Milk shakes are served in tall glasses and may be decorated with chopped nuts, grated chocolate, vermicelli sprinkled on top. Mason jars can also be used to serve milk shakes.

Punch drinks

Strawberry and lime sparkling punch

The term punch refers to drinks both non-alcoholic and alcoholic generally containing fruit or fruit juices. It is considered the earliest cocktail, the drink all other cocktails emanated from.

The name punch originates from the Hindu word for 'five' a reference to the number of basic ingredients used in the preparation of a punch. These ingredients include a sour (lime or lemon), sugar, spirit (rum or brandy), water and spice (nutmeg).

The drink originated from India in the early seventeenth century. Through sailors the drink was introduced in the UK, from there its use spread to other countries. Punch protected sailors from scurvy due to the presence of vitamin C in the punch.

The drink is typically served at parties in large, wide bowls known as punch bowls with punch glasses. Punch is commonly made from a mixture of fruit juices and other drinks, and mixed optionally with alcohol. Orange juice concentrate, lemonade concentrate, pineapple juice, water, sugar, lemon and lime soda are examples of ingredients that can be used to make punches.

A punch is a communal drink as it allows people to gather around the punch bowl to share the drink, memories, and stories. It allows the guest to prepare the ingredients hours before and then quickly combine them together with a block of ice when guests arrive. It is served chilled which makes it quite refreshing. It is easy and fast to prepare.


It is an alcoholic beverage typically made by mixing distilled beverages such as brandy, vodka, gin, whiskey, rum or tequila with other ingredients. They contain one or more liqueur, fruit sauce, honey, milk or cream, spices or other flavourings.

Cocktails made with the exclusion of alcohol known as mock tails. The non-alcoholic cocktail look and taste like an alcoholic one.

Cocktails are served mostly at parties and wedding pre reception cocktail party. They are served on a tray covered with a tray cloth to avoid spilling. Glasses can be chilled in a freezer (if safe to do so) beforehand to help maintain the serving temperature.

What makes cocktails different from a punch is that:

  • Punch is made mostly of a mixture of fruit juices and other drinks while cocktails are made from a mixture of different distilled drinks including fruit drinks.
  • Cocktail has more alcohol than punch.
  • Punch and cocktails are served differently. Punch drink is served in large wide punch bowls while cocktails are served in glasses.

Yoghurt based drinks

Strawberry yoghurt drink

Yoghurt drinks are produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. These drinks are non- alcoholic and nourishing. Yoghurt is made by fermenting milk or cream with a yoghurt culture. The mixture is then incubated at a specific temperature to promote bacteria growth. Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and characteristic flavour. It can be left plain or fruits, sweeteners, gelatine and other ingredients are often added.

Yoghurt  drinks  contain  lots  of  calcium,  vitamin  b12,  riboflavin,  magnesium, potassium, HBV protein and often fortified with vitamins and  mineral elements. Yoghurt drinks can also be made at home by mixing your favourite yoghurt flavours with other ingredients such as water, spices, rose water, mixed to a foaming drink. These drinks can be used to accompany a meal and is a strong competitor to soft drinks. Yoghurt drinks provide a health refreshing snack. They come in portion packs, making them easy to consume on the go.


Though soups are usually thought as food there are soups that are drinks for example bone broth or schav. Schav is a Russian soup served as a cold, refreshing summer time drink.

If a soup is put in a mug and is sipped, it is almost by definition a drink. Not all soups can be served as a beverage e.g. a thick chunky minestrone soup cannot be served as a drink. Therefore, both thick and thin soups that are free from solid can be served in a mug as a drink.Soups make a good refreshing and nourishing beverage. They are also ideal for packed meals, and hot soups provide warmth.

Iced tea

Berry iced tea with honey mint syrup

It is any tea that has been chilled or cooled. Iced tea can be mixed with flavoured syrup, lemon, raspberry, lime, passion fruit, peach, orange, cherry and strawberry. It may be sweetened with sugar, syrup or apple slices. Iced tea is also a popular packaged drink. Iced tea is a refreshing drink which could also be stimulating depending with the type of tea used. For a more nutritious iced tea pureed fruits such as strawberries may be strained into the tea.

Adding slivers of fresh fruit like pine apple, peach and kiwi to the iced tea bring a little tropical colour. For a tangy mixture the fruit can be left to soak in the tea for a few hours and the fruit may be eaten.

It is usually served in a glass with ice. It is not only a summer drink but it is also served all year round with most meals. It can be served sweetened or unsweetened.

Egg nog

Egg nog served in a glass                   Egg nog served in a cup

Egg nog means literary egg in a drink. Its historically known as milk punch or egg milk punch. It is a rich, chilled sweetened, dairy-based beverage. It all began in England where egg nog was the trademark drink of the upper class. There was no refrigeration on the farms, so those who could get eggs to make the drink mixed it with brandy, Madeira or even sherry.

The recipe for egg nog is simply mixing whipped egg whites, egg yolks, sugar, milk, cream and some kind of spirit. The egg yolks give a yellow colour to this delicious beverage which is served chilled over ice. It is served in small glasses or cups.

Egg nog being a dairy based drink makes it nutritious. However, it contains a lot of calories especially if cream is used.

Here is what we discussed in this topic


  • Skilful dish is one that has more than two skills to be displayed during its preparation. The mores kills displayed in preparing the more skilful a dish is.
  • A good cook should be able to perfectly display skills using tools and equipment when preparing to cook, during cooking and serving of food.
  • Cooked food must be evaluated and tasted before serving.
  • Correct preparation of food influences the colour, flavour, texture and nutritional value of food.
  • Herbs and spices are very useful in flavouring food. These must be used sparingly to avoid distorting natural flavours of food.
  • Texture in a meal must be varied to avoid monotony.
  • There are several ways of meal service and these include Plate service, Buffet, Cafeteria service/Combo buffet, Family-style (English) service, Classical French service, Russian service and Cocktail service.
  • Food presentation is just as essential to the success of a dish as its taste and flavour.
  • Therefore, food should be well cooked and attractively presented.
  • Table etiquette are manners or rules used while eating which may include use of utensils. Different cultures observe different rules for table manners.
  • Meal time is a very important occasion as it brings the family members together, it is therefore important for parents to help their children develop good eating habits.
  • Aflower centre piece enhances the beauty of a table by giving colour and freshness at any time of the year. The simplest decorations of real flowers are to be preferred than artificial flowers. Flower arrangements for family meals are usually simple ones.
  • Atable decoration should be small and low so that it does not prevent people from seeing each other across the table.
  • Menu cards also give a decorative effect if well made.
  • Advanced beverages include the following smoothies, punches, mahewu, yogurt based drinks and cocktails.